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Shwe gas field and pipeline, Myanmar

Criminalisation and repression of activists in Myanmar campaigning against the Shwe gas and oil pipeline to China.


The Shwe gas field is an offshore natural gas field located in the Bay of Bengal, in the Andaman Sea. The gas field was discovered in 2004, originally developed by South Korea's Daewoo International and production began in 2013. In August 2000, Daewoo signed a production sharing contract with Myanmar Oil and Gas Enterprise (MOGE) to explore Burma's sea areas and market any underwater gas reserves found.

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Basic Data
Name of conflict:Shwe gas field and pipeline, Myanmar
State or province:Bay of Bengal, Andaman Sea
Location of conflict:Shwe offshore gas field
Accuracy of locationMEDIUM (Regional level)
Source of Conflict
Type of conflict. 1st level:Fossil Fuels and Climate Justice/Energy
Type of conflict. 2nd level:Oil and gas exploration and extraction
Ports and airport projects
Transport infrastructure networks (roads, railways, hydroways, canals and pipelines)
Oil and gas refining
Aquaculture and fisheries
Specific commodities:Crude oil
Natural Gas
Project Details and Actors
Project details

The proven reserves of the Shwe gas field are about 263 cubic kilometers.

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Project area:Approx. 250,000 hectares
Level of Investment for the conflictive project Estimated: 3,730,000,000 USD
Type of populationRural
Affected Population: 22 affected townships
Start of the conflict:01/01/2011
Company names or state enterprises:Daewoo International from Republic of Korea
Myanma Oil and Gas Enterprise (MOGE) (MOGE) from Myanmar
Oil and Natural Gas Corporation (ONGC) Videsh
Korean Gas Corporation from Republic of Korea
China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC ) from China
Environmental justice organizations (and other supporters) and their websites, if available:EarthRights International:
Shwe Gas Movement:
Human Rights Watch:
Conflict & Mobilization
IntensityLOW (some local organising)
Reaction stageIn REACTION to the implementation (during construction or operation)
Groups mobilizing:Farmers
International ejos
Local ejos
Ethnically/racially discriminated groups
Fisher people
Forms of mobilization:Involvement of national and international NGOs
Objections to the EIA
Official complaint letters and petitions
Public campaigns
Street protest/marches
Environmental ImpactsVisible: Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity), Food insecurity (crop damage)
Potential: Oil spills, Surface water pollution / Decreasing water (physico-chemical, biological) quality
Health ImpactsVisible: Violence related health impacts (homicides, rape, etc..)
Socio-economical ImpactsVisible: Displacement, Violations of human rights, Land dispossession, Loss of traditional knowledge/practices/cultures, Loss of livelihood, Increase in violence and crime, Militarization and increased police presence, Other socio-economic impacts
Other socio-economic impactsIn May 2013, two employees of a CNPC subcontractor were shot and killed on a project site related to the Shwe Gas Project.
Project StatusIn operation
Conflict outcome / response:Corruption
Criminalization of activists
Deaths, Assassinations, Murders
Violent targeting of activists
Application of existing regulations
Do you consider this an environmental justice success? Was environmental justice served?:No
Briefly explain:Local residents whose land was confiscated were mostly left unheard and did not receive any response or compensation from the companies or its subcontractors involved in the project. The project is currently in operation.
Sources & Materials
Juridical relevant texts related to the conflict (laws, legislations, EIAs, etc)

Myanmar 2011 Law Relating to Peaceful Assembly and Peaceful Procession

References to published books, academic articles, movies or published documentaries

Shwe Gas Movement (2013), Drawing the Line, The Case Against China's Shwe Gas Project, For Better Extractive Industries in Burma, Report, September 2013
[click to view]

Business & Human Rights Resource Centre (2013), Shwe gas & Myanmar-China oil transport projects (Apr-Jun 2013)
[click to view]

Shwe Gas Movement (2011), SOLD OUT, Launch of China pipeline project unleashes abuse across Burma, published in September 2011
[click to view]

CNPC's Dreams of Pipelines from Myanmar All Blocked Up, by Huang Kaixi, Caixin Online, 18 June 2013,
[click to view]

Shwe Natural Gas Project, Myanmar,, 2014
[click to view]

Myanmar activists jailed for protesting against Chinese-led oil and gas project, by Aung Hla Tun, Thomson Reuters Foundation, 27 September 2013,
[click to view]

Hundreds Protest Pipeline in Burma's Rakhine State, by Min Thein Aung and Zin Mar Win, RFA Burmese Service, 18 April 2013,
[click to view]

Burma: China-Led Oil, Gas Projects Spark Arrests, HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH (HRW), 11 May 2013,
[click to view]

Six charged over China-Burma pipeline protests, REFworld, Radio Free Asia, 19 April 2013,
[click to view]

Fishermen Protest Against Kyaukphyu Seaport
[click to view]

Meta information
Last update18/08/2019
Conflict ID:1748
Legal notice / Aviso legal
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