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Oil & gas extraction on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea

The Bioko Island is progressively being turned into a petrochemical complex, threatening the local population Bubi people livelihoods.


Equatorial Guinea is the third-largest oil producer in Sub-Saharan Africa, after Nigeria and Angola. The income from this black gold has not improved the living conditions of local communities - on the contrary, the proceeds have been instrumental in strengthening the on-going dictatorship of President Obiang Nguema and his family. The discovery of oil and gas reserves on Bioko Island worsened the conflict between the native Bubi ethnic group and the central Government. The Movement for the Self-Determination of Bioko Island remains active.

Basic Data
Name of conflict:Oil & gas extraction on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea
Country:Equatorial Guinea
State or province:Bioko Island
Accuracy of locationHIGH (Local level)
Source of Conflict
Type of conflict. 1st level:Fossil Fuels and Climate Justice/Energy
Type of conflict. 2nd level:Oil and gas exploration and extraction
Specific commodities:Crude oil

Natural Gas
Project Details and Actors
Project details

Equatorial Guinea exports about 500 barrels per day.

See more
Project area:100000
Level of Investment for the conflictive project700000000
Type of populationSemi-urban
Affected Population:170000
Start of the conflict:1996
Company names or state enterprises:ExxonMobil Corporation (Exxon) from United States of America
Amerada Hess
Marathon Oil Corp from United States of America
The Atlantic Methanol Production Company (AMPCO) from Equatorial Guinea
Taleveras Group from Nigeria
NOBLE ENERGY from United States of America
Atlas petroleum from Nigeria
Glencore (GLEN) from Switzerland
P.A. Resources from Sweden
Relevant government actors:Government of Equatorial Guinea
International and Finance InstitutionsRiggs Bank from United States of America
Environmental justice organizations (and other supporters) and their websites, if available:Movement for the Self-Determination of Bioko Island (MAIB) - Equatorial Guinea, Global Witness - England
Conflict & Mobilization
IntensityHIGH (widespread, mass mobilization, violence, arrests, etc...)
Reaction stageIn REACTION to the implementation (during construction or operation)
Groups mobilizing:Indigenous groups or traditional communities
International ejos
Local ejos
Social movements
Ethnically/racially discriminated groups
Forms of mobilization:Land occupation
Public campaigns
Street protest/marches
Environmental ImpactsVisible: Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity), Loss of landscape/aesthetic degradation, Soil contamination, Waste overflow, Deforestation and loss of vegetation cover, Surface water pollution / Decreasing water (physico-chemical, biological) quality
Potential: Air pollution, Food insecurity (crop damage), Global warming, Noise pollution, Soil erosion, Groundwater pollution or depletion, Large-scale disturbance of hydro and geological systems
Health ImpactsVisible: Exposure to unknown or uncertain complex risks (radiation, etc…), Deaths
Potential: Malnutrition, Occupational disease and accidents, Infectious diseases
Socio-economical ImpactsVisible: Increase in Corruption/Co-optation of different actors, Displacement, Increase in violence and crime, Lack of work security, labour absenteeism, firings, unemployment, Loss of livelihood, Loss of traditional knowledge/practices/cultures, Militarization and increased police presence, Violations of human rights, Land dispossession, Loss of landscape/sense of place
Potential: Social problems (alcoholism, prostitution, etc..), Specific impacts on women
Project StatusIn operation
Conflict outcome / response:Corruption
Criminalization of activists
Deaths, Assassinations, Murders
Violent targeting of activists
Proposal and development of alternatives:An end to oil extraction activity on Bioko Island and the restoration of the area.
Do you consider this an environmental justice success? Was environmental justice served?:No
Briefly explain:Oil & gas extraction is still the main economic activity on the Bioko Island, and the Government supports it, threatening the native population.
Sources & Materials
References to published books, academic articles, movies or published documentaries

L'Africa del tesoro. Masto Raffaele. Ed. Sperling and Kupfer. 2006
[click to view]

The myths of the west african gas pipeline. Friends of the earth. Ed. Friends of the earth. 2006.
[click to view]

Manifesto dirigido al Presidente de la Republica de Guinea, October 1993
[click to view]

Ayuda, mercado y buen gobierno - Los lenguajes del desarollo en Africa en el cambio de milenio. Campos Serrano, Alicia. Ed. ICARIA. 2005.
[click to view]

Lifting the Oil Curse: Improving Petroleum Revenue Management in Sub-saharan Africa. Katz , Menachem. Ed. IMF. 2004.
[click to view]

Equatorial Guinea, Taleveras to build Africa's largest oil storage hub, 08/01/2015
[click to view]

El MAIB se manifiesta en la capital de España, El Revolucionario, 12/02/2009
[click to view]

Ministry of Mines, Industry and Energy
[click to view]

10° Aniversario del Manifesto de la Nacion Bubi, 2003
[click to view]

Movement for the Self-Determination of Bioko Island
[click to view]

By Chemicals Technology
[click to view]

Bubi people
[click to view]

Meta information
Contributor:Lucie Greyl
Last update18/08/2019
Conflict ID:464
Legal notice / Aviso legal
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